Friday, November 15, 2019
Roles and responsibilities of journalist Introduction In my opinion, the main responsibility of a journalist is to report the news in a truthful, unbiased and apolitical way. As a result of this, I endeavour to make certain that my own writing adheres to this criteria. Both the Press Complaints Commission (PCC) and the Office of Communications (Ofcom) codes of conduct detail accuracy as one of the major guidelines that journalists should respond to. The PCC work to enforce their code of conduct in the newspaper industry and it is the cornerstone of the system of self-regulation to which the industry has made a binding commitment. (Press Complaints Commission 2009). As a practicing journalist I feel it is important to work in correlation with these codes right from the offset, so as to ensure my writing is of the highest standard throughout my entire career. I hope that this is evident in my journalism portfolio assignment. In this report I will be looking at the importance of accurate, unbiased journalism and how I have applied this to my own news stories. Discussing the roles and responsibilities of the journalist with reference to my own experience of working as a journalist Journalists have a number of roles and responsibilities that they must consider throughout the course of their entire career; but of course this depends upon the area of journalism with which they are involved. For the sake of my report I will be concentrating on the main area of journalism we have explored thus far and that is reporting the news. Whilst reporting the news, Journalists should take into consideration the audience and prospective publication, their editor and importantly, their own personal interests (for example, any legal obligations). While some journalists may choose to go against what could perhaps be described as an ethical grain, I feel that a truly successful journalist would always consider the above before submitting anything for publication. However, one could perhaps put forward the argument of public interest. Accurate A journalist has a service to the media prescribing public to make sure that the news they report is accurate. This is enforced by self-regulating bodies and media laws such as libel and defamation. Other laws are in place to make sure that journalists do not impose upon court trials, such as contempt of court. At present I am learning Teeline shorthand as part of my course module: Preparation for NCTJ Accreditation. One of the main factors that has made reporting accurately a real problem for me so far has been my inability to write at a high enough speed in court hearings and council meetings. All that it would take is one piece of information taken down incorrectly or missed out altogether and the credibility of a news story could be lost completely. While I dont think that I have made any errors in my work so far, it is definitely an issue for me. Hopefully as my Teeline skills improve, I will become more confident and begin to apply it to journalistic situations. On my first visit to Sheffield Magistrates Court, I was unfortunate enough to sit in on a hearing that was eventually committed to Crown court for trial before a jury. Legally, I would be unable to report on this story until sentencing was complete, something our assignment would not permit us to do. Because of this, I had to look for another case to write about that I could report on without the fear of contempt. I tried to ensure complete accuracy in my stories, lending extra care to the names and details of the people involved. While there were no real legal issues with my stories as they were not intended for publication, it was still important both for mine and the assignments sake for them to be precise. I tried to put myself into the mind-set of a professional journalist and consider their roles and responsibilities, which I think enabled me to write my stories as though they really were intended for an audience. Unbiased Further to accuracy, Journalists should ensure that their news writing is unbiased and presents the basic facts for their audience to determine their own set of judgements. Any opinions should be in the form of attributed quotes and a good journalist will show both sides of the story. As our assignment entailed writing up a report of a court case, I presented the facts in order of importance in the pyramid style we have been taught and without offering any opinions of my own. For my council story, I was dealing with a potential story of high human interest. The subject matter was fairly sensitive as it was regarding the confirmation of a school closure in Sheffield, affecting hundreds of local children and parents. I wrote my story using the facts and quotes I had obtained from a full council meeting, a cabinet meeting and relevant literature from both sides: the cabinet, education officers, school governors and the parents themselves. I think I succeeded in writing this story from a completely neutral and unbiased perspective. Due to the sensitive nature I wanted to make sure that my opinion did not come out in my writing. Whether I was for or against the closure was not important for the type of the story and my main intention was for the prospective reader to create their own opinion. Apolitical Sheffield is a Liberal Democrat council and throughout the council meetings there was some heckling from the Labour and Conservative party representatives that were present. I think I succeeded in keeping to the third responsibility for journalists that I outlined earlier by being politically neutral in this particular piece. I think my writing here is apolitical and my own political persuasions are not directly accessible in any of my three news stories. Plain English To help with the readability and accessibility of their news stories, Journalists should ensure that their writing meets the style of their specific publication and editor. Further to this, writing should be in plain English and without jargon. This is especially important in writing stories from court cases, council meetings and police statements. For our assignment, we were to write our three news stories in the guise of a regional newspaper reporter. I read a lot of regional journalism both online and in print and feel that I have a good knowledge of the writing style, which I hope is evident in my work. In addition, I always attempt to maintain a good level of plain English throughout my journalistic writing. I feel that my court story reflects this positively and reads well. Public Interest The final area I wish to explore is public and human interest. Above the ethical responsibilities, Journalists are encouraged to write interesting news as that is what really sells newspapers. Public interest is the Holy Grail for journalists and ideally all stories we write would draw a large amount of it. Public interest can also be used as a defence for when journalists go a little too far out of their way to obtain a story. For example, if a journalist goes against either the PCC or the Ofcom code of conduct, but it can be said that the story holds a significant amount of public interest, they may well escape unscathed. However, it is easy to question the ethical consequences of these actions. For my court and council stories I think that I have captured a good amount of public interest, as both stories have elements that make them newsworthy. I am slightly disappointed that my own sources story is not quite as successful in this element, but I still regard it as a fairly strong piece of journalism. While it does not have the immediacy and drama of the other stories, it takes a more feel good and festive approach. I feel I could have found a more exciting story, but quite liked the varied themes of my 3 pieces. Conclusion While I completely understand the need for bias and political standing to be kept separate from news stories and reports, not all aspects of the journalism trade call for this. For example, columnists build up an entire fan base and reputation based upon their witty and interesting take on the news. Being objective and impartial in journalism will serve a purpose as far as simply reporting the news goes, but one must learn to associate certain roles and responsibilities with different areas of the craft. I have always thought of myself as a competent writer, but have found the news writing side somewhat challenging since I started my degree. We have learned in our lectures and seminars that news writing follows a certain formula which I am doing my best to learn, but up until this most recent assignment my practice has mainly been writing from fictional briefs. While helpful, this does not give the journalist to be the real sense of reality that this task has provided. Sitting in on both court cases and council meetings in situations that were potentially life changing for those involved has been a much more rewarding experience for me. It is this encounter with the people directly affected by the news I am writing that I feel helps to shape the practicing journalist and give them sufficient respect for the importance of upholding their roles and responsibilities throughout the course of their career. One cannot truly appreciate the need for upholding the codes of conduct set in place by the PCC and Ofcom, or have a complete understanding of the necessary responsibilities being a journalist entails, without the first-hand experience of working with real people. I feel that my own stories in this assignment were successful pieces of news writing and further than that, of a sufficient standard for publishing in regional newspapers. However, I feel that the things I have considered in this report will be the catalyst for me to get out and improve my confidence and abilities further and actively try to investigate stories with a serious view to getting them published. Bibliography Press Complaints Commission. Editors Code of Practice. (2009). [online] Last accessed 05/01/2010 at: http://www.pcc.org.uk/cop/practice.html
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
In the twentieth century, the journal of my Irish ancestor, Detective Robert Shorts, was found during an Estate sale. He immigrated from Ireland in the early 1850Ã¢â¬â¢s as a teenager and spent the later part of his life as DetroitÃ¢â¬â¢s Detective and, later, Police Chief. The following are his words. October 24, 1872, Detroit. It was a dark time. The city had been safe since the 1830Ã¢â¬â¢s, so safe that women could walk about without their husbands or go to work without an escort. Now. Well, now things were dark. I found myself standing alongside the latest victim, pretty, well-dressed, not a prostitute. A lady of means, murdered in broad daylight. I wondered what the world was coming to. Back in Ireland, this never would have happened to her. Things were different there. The main difference being that in Ireland, you knew where the bad neighborhoods were, and unless you were there for reasons unmentionable, you avoided them like the plagueÃ¢â¬âfor thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what it would get you, and that would be the best of things. Things had changed so much if you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know the new buildings in town you could get easily lost and wind up in a bad spot. Which is probably what happened to the lady, I considered. I saw nothing that would have placed her in this dark alley that used to be a small, slightly urban park. My hand rested on my pistol as the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s finest surrounded me to take pictures of the scene and lay the tape that would seal this womanÃ¢â¬â¢s fate in history as one of the first victims of organized crime. December 26, 1880, Detroit. I was named Police Chief today, called in to work to have the torch handed down to me as the last Police Chief had been murdered by vindictive members of the mob. As of yet, we have apprehended no one in the cursed plague of murders that have been a result of their organized crime since I began as Detective on the force in the early 1870Ã¢â¬â¢s. As the holiday passed me without celebration, I began to wonder why I ever came to this country. I came alone, without parents to support me, and with only my wits to get me to this country of freedom and inspiration. America. Land of the free, brave, and dangerous. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what most immigrants were thinking or where we got such ideas. But, in trading crime for commerce, it is true that I make more in wages in one month today than I ever made in more than two years of factory work back in Ireland. Yet, in looking out my window, I considered what there was to feel inspired about when more than six slaughterhouses surrounded the precinct. I had to endure the rancid smell of rotting meat day in and day out while I worked my cases. The mayor has promised change in the area of expansion, and a business district, which would place the markets and businesses on a different block, but that ideal seems a long way off. The papers said today that the city has seen extensive growth, moving the population from two thousand to more than one hundred sixteen thousand in the past fifty years (Schneider, 3). ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s more than one hundred thousand people who have moved within the city lines in the past fifty years. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s no wonder the city is floundering in crime and un-planned expansion. From what IÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen, this dramatic increase has done more for the volume of crime and murder than it has for the success or development of the city, but there is hope of a revitalization from the industrial revolution sweeping the nation, even reaching a dark place like Detroit.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
History is vital in the development of a country. China is one of the countries with a rich account of historical events. These include the Chinese Civil War, Great Leap Forward, Cultural Revolution, and Great Famine. I am fascinated by ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s Great FamineÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âlargest ever recorded famine in human historyÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âthat transpired between 1959 and 1961. The famine had caused the death of about 30 million Chinese citizens due to extreme starvation. Encyclopedia of Population describes the famine as Ã¢â¬Å"massive institutional and policy changes which accompanied the Great Leap Forward were the key factors in the famine. Ã¢â¬ Mao Zedong, a distinguished Chinese leader, had this wild dream to make ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy soar quickly. He planned to surpass BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s achievement on iron and steel production. So he ordered millions of peasants to join the iron and steel production workforce instead of working in their fields. My grandfather, who had experienced that period said, Ã¢â¬Å"I was ordered to mine local deposits of iron ore and limestone while my brother was ordered to smelt metal instead of farming. Ã¢â¬ My grandfather said that people then were eating tree peels and roots. Those efforts toward industrialization resulted to decreased agricultural activities that eventually triggered the spread of famine.
Friday, November 8, 2019
The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Family care givers in a Home Setup Abstract The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Family care givers in a Home Setup ) Zimbabwe, in particular, has been worst hit by the HIV epidemic with more than 27% of the adult population diagnosed with HIV in 1997. Currently though, the prevalence rates have reduced significantly to 14% of the adult population (National AIDS Council, 2012). However, this decline is largely attributed to the significant number of deaths of people with HIV. Persistent political turmoil and the resultant economic decline have further contributed to the literal collapse of the Zimbabwean health care system. The failure of the Public health care system has cast the major burden of health care provision to private agencies, NGOs and Home based care has become the indispensible and only feasible model under the prevailing circumstances. Statistics suggest that of the 35,000 children in the country that needed Ã¢â¬ËAntiretroviral TherapyÃ¢â¬â¢ (ART) only 17,000 have had access to the drugs (UNICEF, 2009). Though the availability of ART has vastly improved from just 15% in 2007 to around 80% by 2010, (National AIDS Council, 2011) there is still a huge unmet demand. Zimbabwean governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s opposing attitude towards NGOs and its accusations about the NGO funds being used for anti governmental activities has further limited the already strained financial aid flowing into the country for AIDS care.Ã Amidst these tiring circumstances, family based care giving has become the central strategy for the national HIV/AIDS management programs.Ã This paper attempts to study the impact of HIV/AIDS care delivered in the family based setting and how such care provision affects the care giver.Ã In particular, this paper strives to highlight the issues such as the psychosocial impact on caregivers and using the caregiverÃ¢â¬â¢s views assesses their coping and support mechanisms. Home Based Care A brief outlook into what constitutes home based care is appropriate before we proceed further. The World Health Organization defines home based care as Ã¢â¬Å" a programme that through regular visits, offers health care services to support the care process in the home environment of the person with HIV infection. Home visits may be the only service provided or be part of an integrated programme which offers the patient and his/her family services in the home, hospital and communityÃ¢â¬ . Ministry of Health and Child Welfare,(2004). From the definition it is clear that home based care is considered a holistic care solution that addresses the needs of both the care receiver as well as the care giver. This understanding is crucial for the successful implementation of the home based care delivery model. Literature Review Family based care provision is proving to be the important model in the delivery of care to chronic illnesses such as AIDS. Particularly in Zimbabwe, where decades of political and economic turmoil have weakened the health care system, the role of family based care provision could not be more emphasized. The political friction between the West and the Mugabe government, and the accusations about the political motives of the NGO operations in the country, led to a sharp decline in the active healthcare interventions in the country.Ã NGO funding to Zimbabwe for its healthcare programmes reached a record low in 2006. During this year, the average aid money for HIV care per person in Zimbabwe was limited to $ 4 which when compared to the average aid money allotted per person in Zambia ($184) is a meager amount (Matimba, 2010). However, since 2008, the aid to Zimbabwe is again on the rise with the USAID and DFID being the two key contributors. The USAID contributed 26.4 million in 2008 while the DFID pledged in 2010 to contribute $40 million over a five year period. Despite this the total aid money that Zimbabwe received for its HIV healthcare operations during this period is just one tenth of the aid money received by neighboring Zambia and one fourth that of the aid amount received by Namibia in the corresponding periods (AVERT, 2012). These statistics project the grim scenario from the financial standpoint in delivering HIV care in Zimbabwe where HIV has assumed endemic proportions. HIV being a chronic condition, patients have to undergo continuous care for a protracted period of time and the hospital setting cannot handle the enormous demand. Statistics suggest that in Zimbabwe roughly 70% of all hospital admissions are connected to HIV care.Ã Statistics also suggest that even a 5% increase in the number of HIV patients would result in a 25% increased demand for hospital beds. The figures indicate that hospitals, as care provision centers, for a country such as Zimbabwe where there is a swelling HIV population, is a highly unviable model and therefore community and home based care provision assume great significance.Ã The policy stance of the Zimbabwean government to promote home based care provision could be understood based on these ground realities. The Zimbabwean government has been actively promoting care giver training by employing community nurses as trainers for these family care givers. With funding limitations, even the training and support prov ided by the community nurses to the family care givers has been affected making them vulnerable to the enormous pressure of managing the care provision all by themselves (Matimba, 2010). National Community Home-Based Care Standards (2004)Ã The enormity of the HIV problem and the limited nature of the government health care resources forced the home care system of care delivery in Zimbabwe. However, the quality of life of the HIV infected patient depends a lot on quality of the home care givers. In most cases these home based care providers have absolutely no training at all and even lack the knowledge to protect themselves from accidental exposure to HIV infection. To improve the quality of home based care delivery, support services must also be improved. With this in view the government of Zimbabwe set up the Ã¢â¬ËNational Community Home-Based Care StandardsÃ¢â¬â¢ in 2004 that included the following important features Care and Support for patients and Family Team Service Provision Governance and Management Training , information and Education Monitoring and evaluation The main objective of establishing the standards for home based care delivery is to change home care from being perceived as a third rate care provision by improving its overall quality. It should be noted that Home care is not just about the patients but also about the care giver. The national standards for Home care therefore lay this stress on providing holistic care support through an established standard. The process involves training, education, monitoring and continuous evaluation.Ã The National Community Home-Based Care Standards (2004)Ã neatly defines its purpose as Ã¢â¬Å"Provision of a support system through the development of strong partnerships with the community, family and patient, home-based caregivers, and the health system, thus assuring patients an acceptable quality of life until deathÃ¢â¬ . (Ministry of Health and Child Welfare, 2004). The definition also considers the aspects of support provided for the carer and other family members includingÃ Ã¢â¬ emotional, spiritual and other psychosocial support, bereavement counseling, and other appropriate assistance that meets their special needsÃ¢â¬ (Ministry of Health and Child Welfare, 2004). Ã Psychosocial Impact of Caregiving Literature is abound with studies that analyze the impact of care giving for a HIV patient, on the care-giver. Almost all of these studies indicate that care giving results in enormous psycho social impact on the provider. Typically, the family care giver maybe overcome with emotions ranging from , depression, anxiety, fear, anger , helplessness along with the overwhelming financial burden that is involved with HIV care provision. Lindsey et al., (2003) explored the effects of care giving on older and younger women in Botswana who were caring for family members with chronic HIV. The authors of the study identified that older women, in particular, were overwhelmed with the physical and mental demands of care giving. These women had to manage demanding tasks such as caring for the patient with frequent episodes of vomiting, incontinence and confusion. Care giving family women had to do all this along with their household chores and this creates enormous physical hardships not to mentio n the emotional drain. Furthermore, in many cases, care providing women are subjected to economic strains when the productive member of their family is affected by HIV (Lindsey et al., 2003). Another study by Ssengonzi (2007) explored the impact of care giving on Ugandan older women. The results of this study also chimed in with the findings of the previous study with the elderly Ugandan women reporting that care giving left them financially affected due to three main reasons The ill relatives and the consequent loss of family income the negative effect of care giving on the employment opportunities of the care provider Expenses incurred on procuring medicine for the patient under their care The care giving women also expressed social isolation as a result of their inability to participate in the usual social activities (Ssengonzi,2007). One study by Thomas F (2006) that assessed the impact of home based care giving for HIV patients in Namibia again reported that financial constraints due to care giving is a serious problem. This study collected information from both the patient as well as the care giver in the form of solicited diaries. The study found that the inability to provide for family created severe emotional strain for the care giver.Ã Significantly, the study also reported that the quality of care provision is affected over time when the worsening financial situation in the household coupled with the lack of recovery of the patient lead to escalating tensions and emotional upheavals in the house (Thomas F (2006). One urban study conducted in Kinshasa, the capital of the republic of Congo, involved self reported health and emotional status of 80 spouses and caregivers of HIV infected men in the region. What surprised the researchers was that despite this being an urban study with better hospitals and home care support networks, around 94% of the women caregivers expressed that care-giving was very difficult for them and 99% reported that it affected their social lives. Importantly, 90% of these women care givers stated that they were stigmatized by friends and their husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s employers. This study clearly highlights that the stigma of AIDS care could further contribute to the emotional strain of HIV care.Ã As a revealing study on the psychosocial impact of care giving, this research found that 48% of these care providing women were so unhappy with their circumstances that they lost interest in their life and expressed the lack of interest and energy to continue. Furthermore, 94% of t hese women had some form of physical ailment including frequent headaches, fatigue, body pain, lack of appetite, anorexia, etc (Kipp et al., 2006). Studies done elsewhere in the developed countries also reflect similar feelings from the care givers. For instance one earlier study by Flaskerud Tabora (1998) based on low income female care givers in California who provided care for heterosexual and homosexual HIV patients attested to the findings from the African studies. These women expressed the same concerns as the previously listed studies including depression due to poor functional outcome of the patient, loneliness due to uncooperative and unsupportive friends and relatives, etc. Around 59% of the care giving women also reported that their physical health was affected considerably due to the prolonged period of care giving. Worn out by their care-giving duties these women were moody and even expressed their anger at the patients as their irresponsible behavior put them in this place. Last but not the least, the women subjects of this study welcomed being interviewed for the study as it provided an emotional vent for them to lay out their feelings which they could not so far share with anyone due to the absence of an appropriate support network. (Flaskerud Tabora, 1998). One recent South African study by Hlabyago et al. (2009) focused on one of the important problems faced by care givers of terminally ill HIV/AIDS patients. This problem is the caring for the orphaned children of the parents who succumbed to HIV. As per 2010 data, more than a third of the 50 million or more orphaned children in Sub Saharan Africa lost either one or both their parents to HIV.Ã Given the huge scale of the problem, this study by Hlabyago assumes great significance in terms of policy formulations and also with respect to assessing the impact on family caregivers. The researchers of this study employed one on one interview technique which sought answers to the following important question from the care givers Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Would you please tell me your experiences as a family caregiver concerning your care of the orphans?Ã¢â¬ (Hlabyago et al., 2009). The Interviews were conducted for nine subjects who were home caregivers recruited from the Hoekfontein Clinic in So uth Africa. The demographic details of the subjects were noted down.Ã Six out of the 9 (63%) care givers were grand mothers, 2 of them were aunties and one of them sister to the orphaned children. Thematic analysis of the data resulted in the observations that are listed in the following table. As could be inferred from the above results table, financial constrain is a major problem for care givers affecting 77% (7 out of 9) of the study subjects.Ã However, one concern that is uniformly expressed by all the care givers involved in the study was that of the existence of Bureaucratic difficulties and the lack of social support services. Though the government has programs to support orphans in the form of orphan grants, accessibility problems and processing delays and the lack of proactive approach within the social works departments hinder the outreach of such programs to the people. For instance, one of the caregiver, who was the grand mother of the orphaned child, expressed her helplessness stating, Ã¢â¬Å"I got the heart to help this child by applying for this orphan grant. I am still waiting for the money because it is not yet released. I sent the documents a long time ago. The social worker has since told me that they will send someone at home and I am still waiting. I wish that money can come so that I can save some for him (the orphan) because I am old Ã¢â¬â anytime I can die, you seeÃ¢â¬ . (Hlabyago et al., 2009). The study also revealed that lack of support from family members is a pressing issue. One of the care giver subjects who were interviewed for the study reported that she received little support from her husband in taking care of the orphaned Children. Ã¢â¬Å"The day Johanna died he came and found me struggling with her, he came into the room and walked out, and when he came back again the child was already deadÃ¢â¬ (Hlabyago et al., 2009). Some of the care givers expressed concern about the rebellious attitude of the orphaned kids while some of them expressed concerns about the growing family conflicts due to the care giving. Ã¢â¬Å"I decided to take him in and care for him. I think that she (the orphanÃ¢â¬â¢s biological grandmother) is thinking that because I am receiving this childÃ¢â¬â¢s orphan grant, she is not sending anything for this child who is basically her responsibilityÃ¢â¬ (Hlabyago et al., 2009).Ã The literature reviewed so far clearly highlighted that care giving for HIV patients could be a stressful event and debilitate the care giver in the absence of suitable support mechanisms. Methodology The following sections will revolve around a questionnaire based primary study in which 15 subjects who were care providers for HIV patients in Zimbabwe were provided with 6 questions with various choices and their answers analyzed for themes.Ã The choice of questionnaire was due to its informal nature and usefulness in gaining valuable data. The use of open ended questions helps in ascertaining more information from the subject whenever appropriate.Ã Though initially I had sent my questionnaires to 15 recipients only 10 of them returned the completed information. All the 10 subjects were properly apprised of the nature of the study. Though the respondents knew that the study was purely for academic purposes they were delighted in providing the valuable information for the study. All the subjects were assured of the confidentiality of their responses and that their responses would be used purely for academic knowledge improvement purposes. Thematic analysis was employed to disc ern useful themes and patterns about the various aspects of caregiving. Results The data from the questionnaires answered by the 10 subjects who participated in the study were analyzed to identify the emergent themes. In all, six questions with varied responses to each question were provided to the subjects. These questions were particularly relevant to understanding the wide impact that care giving has on the home based care providers. The results revealed some of the important psychosocial aspects of caregiving. The repetitive themes that were identified from the data attested to the key findings reported in the literature review early in this paper. These common themes suggest the need for urgent action. Care giving challenges The data from the questionnaires revealed some demographic profile about the subjects. Most of the carergivers in the study were relatives of the HIV Patient and on an average care provision period lasted between 2 and 3 years. 80% of the caregivers were elderly females. Economic difficulties dominated the challenges that were reported by the caregivers with almost 90% of the subjects reporting financial constrains as a serious issue involved in prolonged caregiving for the HIV patient.Ã As discussed earlier in the paper this may stem from loss of income if the patient was a productive member of the family. Caregivers are also constrained by the fact that they could not be gainfully employed when they are tied down with caring for the patient. One other important aspect pertaining to caregiving at home was the lack of adequate transport services. 80% of the caregivers opined that they find transporting the patient to the hospital during times of emergency a huge problem as the Ambulance services are not prompt. Subjects also complained that the ambulance services charge them for the fuel costs.Ã Ã Most of the subjects stated that they took the responsibility of caregiving out of love and compassion to the patients. When asked about the support services that could have helped them a lot with their care giving almost all the subjects mentioned transportation as an important feature. 30% of the subjects felt that providing food care for the patients and opportunities for part time employment for themselves would have been greatly helpful.Ã 40% of the caregivers also expressed their concern that the scarcity of water in rural Zimbabwe added more problems to them as they could not walk several kilometers to fetch water leaving their sick patients at home. This is a very relevant issue as Zimbabwe is one of the African countries that is hard hit by water crisis, and more often than not, functional borewells that are the only nearby sources of water would be several kilometers away. There were also concerns about the medication supply with 40% of the caregivers complaining about shortage and availability of Ã¢â¬ËAnti retroviral DrugsÃ¢â¬â¢ at the local dispensary. The continuous availability of ART is critical for HIV patients in order to prolong their life. It was also interesting and informative to note down that 7 out of the 10 subjects felt that this small questionnaire project, though it was done for educational purposes, provided them with an opportunity to discuss the problems involved in care giving.Ã The seven care providers felt that the questionnaire provided them an emotional purge as they hsd not had a chance to discuss their difficulties with anyone else. They all felt that there was a complete lack of support mechanisms available for carers and that this made them feel helpless and emotionally dissipated time to time. Ã Conclusion Caregivers undergo enormous stress during the protracted period of care giving that is involved in managing a chronic HIV patient. Just as care givers provide so much of love, effort and care to the patients they look after, their needs should also be looked after. The psychological, spiritual and financial support that caregivers require are however largely unfulfilled. Especially when there is political and economical turmoil in a country, such as that seen in Zimbabwe, the needs of the home based care provider is more likely to be ignored. As the numerous studies that were discussed in the paper reported care givers are mostly women and predominantly elderly women. Reeling under enormous financial strain, compounded by the lack of support network, African women are forced to singlehandedly manage care delivery for the HIV patient and are stretched to breaking points. Stigmatization and social isolation that arise out of HIV care giving make them even more isolated and overwhelmed. The present study based on the information gathered from caregivers in Zimbabwe clearly highlights the plight of the caregivers. It is very clear that financial woes are among the most important to the caregiver, followed by the lack of support services. Zimbabwean government is unstable and social welfare programs are hardly functioning. Even for those support services that are maintained and run by the Government, bureaucratic difficulties have made them inaccessible and out of reach of the poor caregiver. Counseling support services for caregivers are distinctly lacking. Based on the opinion gathered from the study and other relevant literature, it is clear that holistic care as advocated in the National Community Home-Based Care Standards (2004) is still far from reality. Ã There is clear indication that support networks do not exist or are inaccessible. Based on these findings this paper concludes that family based care givers are struggling without access to support services. A collaborative action involving government, NGOs and other health agencies is required to correct the defects. Home based carers should be trained, supported and counseled, and policy level initiative must be practically implemented. Only then could the quality of life for the patients as well as for the carers improve. Bibliography AVERT, (2012), HIV and AIDS in Zimbabwe, viewed Jan 1st 2012, avert.org/aids-zimbabwe.htm#contentTable5 amfAR, (2012), Statistics Worldwide, viewed January 1st 2012 amfar.org/about_hiv_and_aids/facts_and_stats/statistics__worldwide/ Hlabyago KE Ogunbanjo GA (2009), The experiences of family care givers concerning their care of HIV/AIDS Orphans, SA FAM PRACT Vol 51, no 6 pg 506-511. Kipp W, Matakula Nkosi T, Laing L, Jhangri GS, (2006), Care burden and self-reported health status of informal women caregivers of HIV/AIDS patients in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. AIDS Care, Oct; 18(7):694-7 Lindsey E, Hirschfelf M, Tlou S, Ncube E. (2003), Home based care in Botswana: experiences of older women and young girls. Health Care for Women International; 24: 486-501 Ministry of Health and Child Welfare, (2004), National Community Home based Care Standards, viewed Jan 1st 2012, jsieurope.org/docs/national_community_hbc_standard.pdf Natsayi Matinba, (2010), The Psycho Social impact of Care-Giving on the Family Care-Givers of Chronically ill AIDS/HIV Patients in Home based Care. Research Report, University of Witwatersrand, SA. National AIDS Council, (2011), UNAIDS highlights Zimbabwes progress in response to AIDS, viewed January 1st 2012, nac.org.zw/news/unaids-highlights-zimbabwe%E2%80%99s-progress-responding-aids-0 Ssengonzi R. J. (2007), The plight of older persons as caregivers to people infected/affected by HIV/AIDS: evidence from Uganda. J Cross Cult Gerontol; 22: 339-353 Thomas F. (2006), Stigma, fatigue and social breakdown: Exploring the impacts of HIV/AIDS on patient and carer well-being in the Caprivi Region, Namibia. Social Science and Medicine 63: 3174-3187 UNICEF, (2009), HIV and AIDS Issues, viewed January 1st 2012, unicef.org/zimbabwe/hiv_aids.html
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
The Voice of Greenpeace essays The text provided, titled Letter to Greenpeace Supporter takes shape in the form of a personal letter, for the purpose of finalizing a complete ban on driftnet fishing. Greenpeace believe they must succeed in their efforts to completely ban driftnet fishing as a means to preserve marine life. The letter is composed of statistical evidence supporting the authors argument that driftnet fishing is extraordinarily detrimental to the oceans ecosystem, and many of its inhabitants. The authors use of persuasive techniques such as the tones of intimacy towards the reader (A Greenpeace supporter), and compassionate positioning for the endangered sea creatures are an effective way to position the reader to seriously consider the danger of driftnet fishing. The text clearly states that driftnet fishing has, and will continue to wreak havoc on our environment and marine life. The argument presented by the author is irrefutable in order for the devastation to stop, drastic changes must take place. It cannot be denied that driftnet fishing is harmful to many more sea creatures than intended. ... Greenpeace divers and officials, who monitored the catch on the surface as the nets were hauled in, counted 1,419 tuna, five sunfish, six sharks, seven dolphins and 31 miscellaneous creatures. Vernon, L. K. (1990, April 15). The article itself states that in 1990, over forty-one million non-target sea creatures were killed by a Japanese driftnet squid fishery in the North Pacific, all from just one fleet in one season alone. Four hundred and six of these sea creatures were a threatened and endangered species. In 2002 - the year the letter was written - Greenpeace had been fighting against driftnet fishing for twenty-seven years, successfully banning driftnet fishing in Australian, American, and South Pacific waters. The authors argument against the death trap that is driftnet fishing is captivat...
Sunday, November 3, 2019
The Matrix Trilogy by Wachowski Brothers - Movie Review Example Alexandra Lazar states that the idea of Ã¢â¬Å"formlessness of chaosÃ¢â¬ can be found in: Ã¢â¬Å"Chinese and the Babylonian creation storiesÃ¢â¬ (Lazar, 2004). She illustrates that Ã¢â¬Å"the dragon represents the principle of order, which emerges from chaos. In Babylonian myth, the Goddess Tiamat together with other early gods embodied the various faces of chaosÃ¢â¬ (Lazar, 2004). In general, every universal religion has such binary oppositions: good-evil, chaos-order, hell-paradise, etc. Probably, the fact that Matrix is based on binary opposition helps to explain why it is so successful in our society. Everything around us is based on this concept: love-hate; truth-lie, etc. On the other hand, the Matrix retrieved great knowledge which most of people fail to see. We live in a structured world, which becomes a Matrix for us, and we unable to change it (or at least see Ã¢â¬Å"the realityÃ¢â¬ ). The structure of state, government, bureaucratic system creates a Matrix like its movie prototype. Ã¢â¬Å"The Matrix trilogyÃ¢â¬ is so popular because our generation feels like robots or machines who Ã¢â¬Å"conqueredÃ¢â¬ by bureaucratic system of the world order and Ã¢â¬Å"in order to break free from this ominous and quantifying 'real' we would need to ask further questions about defining links that 'divide and conquerÃ¢â¬ (Lazar, 2004). In the article, Lazar underlines that: Ã¢â¬Å"power in itself is deceptive as it is based on a paradox: it allows the taste of truth/knowledge but causes its own end (and arguably the end of truth/knowledge)Ã¢â¬ (Lazar, 2004). This philosophical idea can be found in stoicism, and corresponds with the notion of Ã¢â¬Å"aporiaÃ¢â¬ and dialectical exercise. For instance, Ã¢â¬Å"in Ã¢â¬Å"ParmenidesÃ¢â¬ the aporia means the form that the sensible and intelligible worlds are incorrigibly separated and also are not separated, in that each side has the other in itÃ¢â¬ (Doull, n.d.). This idea runs through the Matrix trying to uncover the truth of reality, but the heroes rewrite this knowledge showing that 'there is no spoonÃ¢â¬ , so what? Again, the views are faced with the binary opposition which creates Ã¢â¬Å"quasi-mythÃ¢â¬ of reality.Ã
Friday, November 1, 2019
Team Building for Conflict Resolution - Essay Example Conflicts are an ingrained and in-built part of the human psyche. In our everyday lives, whatever roles we play, wherever we live or work, conflicts are naturally occurring all the time. Even in such compact structures as families, which are supposed to be naturally caring and altruistic, conflicts arise all the time. The notion of conflict emerges from the notion of diverse mindsets. In any situation where two or more people come together on a common ground and think for a common problem or agenda, it leads to conflict. Since no two people are alike and no two minds work the same way, people naturally end up disagreeing or thinking differently from their other counterparts, which leads to the emergence of conflicts (Payne, 2001). One may ask, why solve conflicts? A better question may be, why is so much attention devoted to conflicts and if lack of attention on conflict resolution leads to any adverse outcomes? Well, there are multiple answers for that. First, the conflicts arise du e to the differences of opinions and the emphasis here is on differences. Differences usually hold a negative connotation to them; however, having a wide range of options to choose form makes the ultimate solution much more creative and better. Thus, solving conflicts is important because it is through the process that one attains a mutually agreed-upon, more compatible and enhanced solutions to the issues. Secondly, solving conflicts is also important because it is through them that the human resource of any organization stays cohesive and bonded. If conflicts are not resolved aptly and efficiently, it might lead to severe damages in relationships and inefficiency in working together and effective communication (Morris et al, 2008). Now one might ask, what can be done to resolve conflicts, if any arises? Well, the answers to these questions are many depending on different contexts in which conflicts arise. First, conflict should be perceived in a positive light rather than pessimis tically. Managers should encourage conflicts to take on in the positive direction and stimulate lateral thinking than arousing opposing parties to hold grudges against each other. Conflict resolution must also entail the element of listening out the other partiesÃ¢â¬â¢ arguments. Many times people do not listen to others and make certain assumptions regarding their beliefs and attitudes only to regret later. An effective communication tool is to be able to listen to other people and more importantly, empathize with them. Imagine a case scenario in which Mr. Alex and Mr. Brown had an argument over the interface of the new layout of the website that was launched by their company few months back. Before their first meeting about the topic at hand, the manager sent out an email to both of them stating the agenda of the meeting and explaining that Mr. Alex has a tech-savvy background and he suggests that the interface should be of aqua theme. Mr. Brown who has been a loyal employee wan ted the theme to be more professional, something along the lines of white and black. When they met for the first time, Alex came with a pre-conceived assumption that he has an edge over Brown since he has more credentials in the field